05/13 - オーストラリア油濁法 - 油濁に関わる過怠金の補償条項の改訂

アウトライン

  • 国際グループは、傭船契約に挿入すべき油濁補償条項を改訂しました。
  • 本改訂版は、Contributory Faultにおける係争費用及び補償に関する2項目を改定しています。
  • 本条項は、最近適用されたオーストラリア新油濁法に呼応して作成されたものです。
    (Legal Briefing - Australia toughens Maritime pollution laws - December 2011参照)
  • 改訂条項と解説は英文回覧に添付しています。
  • 本回覧はクラブ回覧14/12に代わるものです。

組合員各位

オーストラリア油濁法 - 油濁に関わる過怠金の補償条項の改訂

船舶による汚染及び海洋環境への損害に対する過怠金の引上げが導入されたオーストラリア油濁法(註1)の改訂に関する船主や用船者の懸念に対応するため、2012年10月に、国際グループが推奨する傭船契約の条項が草稿されました。この推奨条項は、メンバー宛に回覧されましたが、オーストラリア法規のさらなる改訂があったため、推奨条項の文言をさらに検討し、添付の通り改訂し、下記のとおりご案内いたします。

過怠金の引き上げ

2012年12月28日、オーストラリアで新法規が施行され、連邦法違反行為に対する過怠金が引上げられました。ペナルティ・ユニットという単位の引上げは、2012年12月28日以降の違反にのみ適用されます。

この変更は、海上への油や油水の流出に関して500から20,000ペナルティー・ユニットの範囲で罰金を規定している1983年海洋保護法(the Protection of the Sea Act 1983)の下で課される過怠金など、ペナルティ・ユニット単位で計算される過怠金に影響します。

従来のペナルティ・ユニットでの計算では、個人に対する過怠金は最高220万豪ドル、法人に対しては最高1100万豪ドルでした。新しいペナルティ・ユニットでの計算では、個人に対する過怠金は最高340万豪ドル(註2)となり、法人の過怠金は最高1700万豪ドル(註3)ということになります。 

註1 Australian Navigation Act1912 and the Protection of the Sea Act 1983
註2 2013年2月21日付為替レートで約350万米ドル
註3 2013年2月21日付為替レートで約1740万米ドル

国際グループが推奨する条項の改訂及び説明文

a) 係争費用

新たに(b)iiiが加えられました。これは過怠金が実際に課されるかどうかに関わらず、 (b)で定める状況で、過怠金やその他刑罰に関する係争で生じた妥当な係争・その他費用の回収も、推奨条項では求償の対象となることを明確にするために挿入されました。

b) 寄与過失がある場合の求償

(b)i.及びii.のただし書は、特に、求償する側に寄与過失がある場合に生じる責任の問題に対応するために、改訂されました。この改訂により、傭船契約書の準拠法で禁止されない限り、寄与過失がある場合には、回収額は制限されます。

推奨条項及び説明文は添付資料をご参照下さい。

本クラブ回覧は、昨年発行した回覧14/12(オーストラリア油濁法 - 油濁に関わる過怠金の補償条項)に代わるものです。

本件に関しご質問のあるメンバーは当クラブにご相談下さい。

国際グループのすべてのクラブより同様の回覧が発行されています。

ANNEX

OIL POLLUTION INDEMNITY CLAUSE FOR PENALTIES AND FINES

(a) Subject to the terms of this Charterparty, as between Owners and Charterers, in the event of an oil pollution incident involving any discharge or threat of discharge of oil, oily mixture, or oily residue from the Vessel (the “Pollution Incident”), Owners shall have sole responsibility for responding to the Pollution Incident as may be required of the vessel interests by applicable law or regulation.

(b) Without prejudice to the above, as between the parties it is hereby agreed that:

i. Owners shall indemnify, defend and hold Charterers harmless in respect of any liability for criminal fine or civil penalty arising out of or in connection with a Pollution Incident, to the extent that such Pollution Incident results from a negligent act or omission, or breach of this Charterparty by Owners, their servants or agents,

ii. Charterers shall indemnify, defend and hold Owners harmless in respect of any liability for criminal fine or civil penalty arising out of or in connection with a Pollution Incident, to the extent that such Pollution Incident results from a negligent act or omission, or breach of this Charterparty by Charterers, their servants or agents,

provided always that if such fine or penalty has been imposed by reason wholly or partly of any fault of the party seeking the indemnity, the amount of the indemnity shall be limited accordingly and further provided that the law governing the Charterparty does not prohibit recovery of such fines.

iii. The rights of Owners and Charterers under this clause shall extend to and include an indemnity in respect of any reasonable legal costs and/or other expenses incurred by or awarded against them in respect of any proceedings instituted against them for the imposition of any fine or other penalty in circumstances set out in paragraph (b), irrespective of whether any fine or other penalty is actually imposed.

(c) Nothing in this clause shall prejudice any right of recourse of either party, or any defences or right to limit liability under any applicable law

(d) Charterers shall procure that this Clause be incorporated into all sub-charters and contracts of carriage issued pursuant to this Charterparty.

EXPLANATORY NOTES 

It is understood that, under the revised Australian law, charterers can be strictly liable for penalties and fines imposed on them as a result of a pollution or threat of pollution caused by the act or negligence of the owner (e.g. navigational error). Conversely, owners can be strictly liable for penalties and fines imposed on them as a result of a pollution or threat of pollution caused by the act or negligence of the charterer (e.g. unsafe berth). As this involves circumstances beyond owners’ and charterers’ control, a charterparty clause is recommended to achieve the effect that whoever causes the Pollution Incident should bear the criminal fines or penalties through indemnification.

Under the clause, owners have overall responsibility for responding to a discharge or threat of discharge of oil, oily mixture or oily residue (subparagraph (a)). This is in line with the Australian legislation and with the international compensation regime.

The indemnity in subparagraphs (b) i. and ii. is designed to protect owners and charterers by incorporating an equal indemnity by the party whose negligent act or omission, or breach of chartererparty, causes pollution or threat of pollution.

The proviso to subparagraphs (b) (i) and (ii) ensures that club cover is not prejudiced on the grounds that liability has been contractually assumed by virtue of the clause in circumstances where there may not be an underlying legal liability. The proviso restricts the amount of recovery where there is contributory fault. The recovery of fines under the clause is also subject to such recovery not being prohibited under the law governing the charterparty.

The indemnity in this clause extends to the recovery of any reasonable legal costs and/or other expenses incurred by or awarded against either party in respect of any proceedings instituted against them for the imposition of any fine or other penalty in circumstances set out in subparagraph (b) irrespective of whether any fine or other penalty is actually imposed.

The indemnity in this clause will not respond to the situation where the pollution or threat of pollution is entirely caused by a third party’s act, without involving any act of the owner or of the charterer, but where the owner or charterer still incurs the penalty or fine under the new Australian law.

The clause only addresses the specific situation of criminal fines and civil penalties, not civil liability which is within the sphere of the Conventions.

Any right of recourse of either party, defence or right to limit is preserved under subparagraph (c).

Subparagraph (d) is designed to ensure that the same recovery and indemnity provisions apply where there is a charterparty chain.

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