USコーストガードは、バラスト水管理に関する「よくある質問 - 第1巻」を更新しました。更新版では、実施スケジュール、排他的経済水域の定義、無人バージへのバラスト水管理要件の適用性、バラスト水管理システムおよび代替管理システムの承認のようなトピックに関する質問を明らかにしています。 また、更新版には、バラスト水の交換、１つのCOTPゾーンでのオペレーション、バラスト水管理システムの設置、米国の公共水道からの水の使用、および沈殿物処理に特化した多くの新しい質問が含まれています。 www.uscg.mil
On 13th February 2004, the IMO adopted the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments.
The purpose of the Convention is to develop a safer and more effective management of ballast water that would eliminate the risk of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens spreading from one part of the world to another causing harm to the environment, human health and property.
The Convention aims to achieve this objective by instituting a series of regulations to manage the transfer and the discharge of ships’ ballast water.
The main obligation of the Convention is for parties to undertake certain actions in order to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of the ships’ ballast water and sediments.
In 1997 the MARPOL Convention was amended by the “1997 Protocol”. The amendment includes Annex VI “Regulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships which sets limits on NOx and SOx emissions from ship exhausts, and prohibits deliberate emissions of ozone depleting substances.
Emission Control Areas
Two sets of emission and fuel quality requirements are defined by Annex VI: (1) global requirements, and (2) more stringent requirements applicable to ships in Emission Control Areas (ECA). An Emission Control Area can be designated for SOx and PM, or NOx, or all three types of emissions from ships, subject to a proposal from a Party to Annex VI.
Existing Emission Control Areas include:
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
2011 Amendments to MARPOL Annex VI introduced mandatory measures to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). The Amendments added a new Chapter 4 to Annex VI on “Regulations on energy efficiency for ships”.
NOx Emission Standards
NOx emission limits are set for diesel engines depending on the engine maximum operating speed (n, rpm), Tier I and Tier II limits are global, while the Tier III standards apply only in NOx Emission Control Areas.
This section covers marine pollution regulations. Areas covered include:
IMO: The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) is the main international convention covering prevention of pollution of the marine environment by ships from operational or accidental causes. www.imo.org
Holman Fenwick Willan: Ship Pollution Response Organisations - Understanding the new PRC regulations www.hfw.com
Department of Energy & Climate change: The Merchant Shipping (Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response Co-operation Convention) Regulations 1998. Every offshore installation and oil-handling facility must have an approved oil pollution emergency plan (OPEP) setting out arrangements for responding to incidents that cause or may cause marine pollution by oil, with a view to preventing such pollution or reducing or minimising its effect. www.gov.uk
Australian Maritime Safety Authority: Marine environment protection resources and Legislation and Prevention measures. www.amsa.gov.au
The IMO website contains information on the Ballast Water Management convention, BWM guidelines and the full text of the convention is available from the IMO. www.imo.org
UK Chamber of Shipping is campaigning against the way new sulphur laws are being implemented. They have released a video this week on the issue. The link will take you to the UK Chamber of Shipping's website: https://www.ukchamberofshipping.com/latest/watch-cost-impending-sulphur-regulations/
The best starting point in the IMO website is the Marine Environment section. Click on the blue button labelled “Marine Environment” and a dedicated menu item on ‘Air pollution’ appears in a right hand menu. Click on that item to view an extensive overview of MARPOL Annex VI and related items such as the full text of the convention and explanation of the work of the Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC).
California Air Resources Board
This organisation has published a series of marine notices regarding the implementation of air emissions regulations. These notices include the requirements for ships to maintain records on fuel use within the regulated area.
In November 2002, the European Commission adopted a European Union strategy to reduce atmospheric emissions from seagoing ships. A dedicated area on the Commission website provides information on the status and development of its directives on air pollution from ships.
This section includes as special Q& A sheet relating to the Directive 1999/32/EC in regard to use of low sulphur fuels at berth.
Anti-fouling paints are used to coat the bottoms of ships to prevent sealife such as algae and molluscs attaching themselves to the hull – thereby slowing down the ship and increasing fuel consumption.
Before the development of modern antifouling paints, lime and later arsenic were used to coat ships' hulls, today the antifouling paint contains metallic compounds. The compounds used slowly "leach" into the sea water, killing barnacles and other marine life that have attached to the ship.
Studies have shown that the compounds remain in the water, killing sealife, harming the environment and possibly entering the food chain. One of the most effective anti-fouling paints, developed in the 1960s, contains the organotin tributylin (TBT), which has been proven to cause deformations in oysters and sex changes in whelks.
On the 5th October 2001, The International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, was adopted which prohibits the use of harmful organotins in anti-fouling paints used on ships and will establish a mechanism to prevent the potential future use of other harmful substances in anti-fouling systems
Under the terms of the Convention, Parties to the Convention are required to prohibit and/or restrict the use of harmful anti-fouling systems on ships flying their flag, as well as ships not entitled to fly their flag but which operate under their authority and all ships that enter a port, shipyard or offshore terminal of a Party.
UK Government website - convention text