Indonesia - Time Bars
As such in Indonesia, the law does not specify when the limitation periods begin. However, in practice, the period starts when the right to make the claim first arises.
However, there is no specific maritime law/Act in Indonesia but there are few provisions in regard to the time bars/limitation as per Indonesian Commercial Code.
|Cargo Claims||Within 1 (one) year from the delivery of the cargo or after the day of the cargo should be delivered. The limitation period for the transportation of goods through a sea shipment is triggered after the date the goods are delivered or supposed to be delivered.||Article 487|
|Vessel Collision Claims||Within 2 (two) years from the day of the collision happened or incurring the damage.||Article 742 in conjunction with article 544 for vessel to vessel.|
Article 742 in conjunction with article 544a for vessel to fixed/floating object.
|Crew Contract||Within 1 (one) year after the end of the duty in the vessel.||Article 745|
|Ship Chandler||Within 3 (three) years from the delivery was done or the work was completed.||Article 743|
|Payment to Salvor||Within 2 (two) years after completing the salvage.||Article 742|
|Payment to the pilot, port dues||Within 1 (one) year after collecting the payment.||Article 745|
|Calculation and sharing of general average||Within 1 (one) year after completing the journey.||Article 745|
|Payment of General Average||Within 1 (one) year from the calculation and sharing have been conveyed by the expert to the Court’s clerk or the related Parties.||Article 745|
|Passenger Claims||Within 1 (one) year.||Article 741|
|Workmen Compensation||The time limit is 2 (two) years after the accident happened.|
|Missing Person (Death in absentia)||A person can be legally presumed as death after 5 (five) years disappeared from the last time he/she left his/her last address. This assumption must be followed up by the petition to the Court to summon her/him including issuing the summon in the newspaper in 3 times every 3 months.||Article 467-471 under Indonesian Civil Code|
|Wreck Removal||There is no specific regulation for the time limit.||The matter can be referred to Article 1967 of Indonesian Civil Code (30 years).|
|Oil Pollution||There is no specific regulation for the time limit.||The matter can be referred to Article 1967 of Indonesian.|
Generally, the legal claims (business or individual), expire after 30 years under Article 1967 of Indonesian Civil Code. However, there are certain exceptions in terms of the general limitations period for the claims for professional services e.g. lawyers', doctors, formen etc. The limitation period for the payment of their service fees is two years unless otherwise agreed in the contracts/ agreements.
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Russia - Time Bars
In general, Russian law does not contain a definition of time bars, it refers to provisions concerning a period of limitation of actions (hereinafter - the limitation period). Legal meaning of the limitation period is quite different from legal meaning of time bars. Russian Civil legislation stipulates that the limitation period is a period for defence of rights of a person whose rights have been infringed. Unless otherwise provided by law, the running of the limitation period shall commence from the day when the person became or should have become aware on infringement of his right and on proper defendant on the claim. A demand for the protection of an infringed right shall be taken for consideration by the court irrespective of expiration of the limitation period. The limitation period shall be applied by a court only on request of a party of the dispute, made before the rendering of a decision by the court. In absence of that request the dispute shall be considered by the court even in case if the limitation period has been expired.
Italy - Time Bars
Under Italian law, limitation periods depend on the type of claim. For the purpose of the time bars examined in this article, the main statutes are the Civil Code and the Code of Navigation. Time bars are distinguished between prescrizione and decadenza: both cannot be extended or shortened by agreement between the parties, but prescrizione can be protected by a notice of claim which will make a fresh time bar period start to run, whilst decadenza can be avoided only by court action or any other act required by the law or by the contract.