The Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea (Rotterdam Rules) was adopted in December 2008 by the UN General Assembly. It will significantly increase the liability of shipowners and maritime carriers in respect of the carriage of cargo.
Under the United States Limitation of Liability Act, a shipowner may commence an action for exoneration from or limitation of liability with respect to all claims arising on a particular voyage.
Charterparties and the Clause Paramount
Article discussing the United States legislation of the Harter Act, 46 U.S.C. §190, et seq. (1893), which was enacted to protect American shippers from comprehensive limitation of liability clauses found in bills of lading issued, primarily, by British liner companies carrying American goods to England.
of the United States Constitution establishes the judicial branch of the federal government. The judicial branch comprises the Supreme Court of the United States and lower courts as created by Congress.